As part of COSYNA a multitude of physical, chemical and biological quantities are measured using a diverse array of measurement methods from a variety of platforms. These diverse methods allow reacting flexibly to different problem sets ranging from small scales (a few centimetres) to questions pertaining to the entire North Sea and on a variety of temporal scales from seconds to multiple years. In principle, one can distinguish between in situ methods and remote sensing. In situ measurements encompass stationary instruments, ship-based devices, and autonomous crafts. Remote sensing is carried out from satellites or, on shorter distances, for example through radar.